Dry the malt and make the wort
Don't overstretch the bud, as the sugars feed the bud and are lost, and this also loses the possible amount of distillate for the whiskey. The sprout is generally the same length as the seed. After that, excess moisture is removed, dried in the sun under natural conditions and turned over.
The dry malt is re-soaked (for a day or more, depending on the desired effect). Then the moisture is removed and, in addition, it is fried in special ovens. For the base malt (in whiskey it is 80-100%), the roast is not strong. When frying, peat is added, which gives the whiskey a unique aroma.
Specialty malt varieties, which are added at 5 to 20% depending on the alcohol brand, are created by special roasting.
Attention. Before preparing the wort, the finished malt is aged for a month, also "ripening".
To create the wort, you need to follow several more steps:
Cleaning. A special vibrating device removes dry root shoots as well as other impurities. All of this serves to feed livestock.
And the remaining pure malt undergoes the following operation. It is tested for moisture, purity, and contamination with microorganisms. When this stage is successfully completed, the malt is allowed to further process.
Grinding. Here, special malt mills are used to grind grains. The requirements are strict: 70% - spent grain, 20% - grain, 10% - flour.
Congestion. The resulting grind is mixed with water, kept for a day, and then placed in a tub, which is called a Masb tun. It is made of cast iron or stainless steel and is coated with copper to keep it warm. It has a special agitator. Capacity - 15 tons. This is where the mashing takes place: heating, aging and transforming the malt sugars into simple forms available to yeast. The malted milk is drained from the vat, which will turn into a fermented product ready for distillation.
Fermentation of the must
Under industrial conditions, water closures and similar small "accessories" of moonshine are not used. Fermentation (fermentation) takes place in barrels per ton of capacity.
They are made of larch or pine. They prefer to ferment the wort for future elite whiskey in barrels made from Oregon pine, which has a high density of wood.
Today stainless steel barrels are also used. So:
The keg is filled about 2/3 of its volume with malted milk.
Yeast is introduced according to the recipe. The first stage of fermentation lasts a couple of hours: the yeast assimilates into a new environment and begins to multiply. The barrel is still ajar.
The second stage: the barrel is hermetically closed and left for fermentation, during which you can literally "walk with a shake", and the temperature inside rises to 35 ° C.
The third final stage is the final ripening, which lasts 12 hours. Specialists control it, accurately determining the distillation time (distillation).
How and what is whiskey made on an industrial scale? Manufacturing characteristics in different countries
The distillation is carried out exclusively in copper stills. This is an apparatus consisting of a distillation cube (in industrial conditions, not several tons, or even tens of tons), with an onion-shaped pommel and a narrow tube extending from it - a gooseneck.
Whiskey lends itself to double distillation.
The heated mash, ready for distillation, is fed from the vats to the first alembic, where the first distillation takes place.
Thanks to the interaction with copper, the distillate, freed from sulfur compounds (an indispensable companion of mashed grain raw materials) and cooled by special devices, has a strength of 28 ° after the first distillation.
It goes into the second alembic and from there it comes out with a graduation of 82-83 °, this is whiskey alcohol.
Characteristics. It is the copper that gives the whiskey of the future tones of nuts, chocolate, caramel.
If you drive a properly prepared wort through a glass or stainless steel apparatus, these flavor and aromatic nuances will not appear.
For such a strong distillate to become whiskey, it is aged in oak barrels for 3 years or more. Elite varieties are aged exclusively in barrels supplied from Spain, in which sherry was previously aged.
Attention. There is whiskey aged up to 100 years.
But these are elite specialty varieties and cost hundreds of thousands of dollars a bottle.
Mix and bottle
The whiskey is poured after the waiting time has expired. As for single malt, before bottling it is tasted, evaluated, filtered and then has the opportunity to salt